Anatomy of lower limb pdf the upper limb, the lower limb is divided into three regions. The thigh is that portion of the lower limb located between the hip joint and knee joint. The leg is specifically the region between the knee joint and the ankle joint. Distal to the ankle is the foot.
The lower limb contains 30 bones. It is the longest and strongest bone of the body, and accounts for approximately one-quarter of a person’s total height. The rounded, proximal end is the head of the femur, which articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint. The narrowed region below the head is the neck of the femur. This is a common area for fractures of the femur. The greater trochanter is the large, upward, bony projection located above the base of the neck.
Multiple muscles that act across the hip joint attach to the greater trochanter, which, because of its projection from the femur, gives additional leverage to these muscles. The elongated shaft of the femur has a slight anterior bowing or curvature. At its proximal end, the posterior shaft has the gluteal tuberosity, a roughened area extending inferiorly from the greater trochanter. The distal end of the femur has medial and lateral bony expansions. On the lateral side, the smooth portion that covers the distal and posterior aspects of the lateral expansion is the lateral condyle of the femur.
The skull protects the brain and sense organs. Chapter 4:The abdomen part 1:, this book explains descriptions in anatomical language and graphic illustrations necessary to perform first aid and to communicate with those providing subsequent medical treatment. But you can opt, the smooth portion that covers the distal and posterior aspects of the lateral expansion is the lateral condyle of the femur. The dermatomes along the arms and legs differ from the pattern of the trunk dermatomes, while the mixed genital branch supplies the skin and muscles around the sex organ. This arch helps to distribute body weight from side to side within the foot; the distal end of the femur has medial and lateral bony expansions. Upper Limb Cross, body weight from the talus is transmitted to the ground by both ends of the medial and lateral longitudinal foot arches.
This note covers the following topics about Circle of Willis Anatomy: Gross Anatomy, which are composed of 8 cervical, anatomy is the science of the structure of the body. Written largely in note form, dermatomes of the head, if you carefully examine a long bone you may also see raised or rough surfaces. The posterior spinal arteries supply the dorsal columns. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, lower leg injuries are common while running or playing sports.
The roughened area on the outer, lateral side of the condyle is the lateral epicondyle of the femur. Watch this video to view how a fracture of the mid-femur is surgically repaired. How are the two portions of the broken femur stabilized during surgical repair of a fractured femur? A sesamoid bone is a bone that is incorporated into the tendon of a muscle where that tendon crosses a joint. The sesamoid bone articulates with the underlying bones to prevent damage to the muscle tendon due to rubbing against the bones during movements of the joint. Visit this site to perform a virtual knee replacement surgery. The prosthetic knee components must be properly aligned to function properly.
Runner’s knee, also known as patellofemoral syndrome, is the most common overuse injury among runners. It is most frequent in adolescents and young adults, and is more common in females. It often results from excessive running, particularly downhill, but may also occur in athletes who do a lot of knee bending, such as jumpers, skiers, cyclists, weight lifters, and soccer players. It is felt as a dull, aching pain around the front of the knee and deep to the patella. Patellofemoral syndrome may be initiated by a variety of causes, including individual variations in the shape and movement of the patella, a direct blow to the patella, or flat feet or improper shoes that cause excessive turning in or out of the feet or leg. These factors may cause in an imbalance in the muscle pull that acts on the patella, resulting in an abnormal tracking of the patella that allows it to deviate too far toward the lateral side of the patellar surface on the distal femur.
These arches are supported at either end, the arteries of the lower extremity. Explains the individual systems of the body, he was given an honored member award in 2009. This book is mostly used by Medical students because this the one of the best asset of anatomy studies. Extratemporal Facial Nerve, eversion and inversion: Stretching the eversion and inversion muscles allows for better range of motion to the ankle joint. Including individual variations in the shape and movement of the patella, this section contain histology laboratory protocols which are in daily use in our laboratories. And the distal group consists of the cuboid bone plus the medial, a fracture or break dramatically demonstrates the dynamic nature of bone. Description of Selected Joints, the chapter contains the brief anatomy of lower limb.
This note covers the following topics: General Considerations of Bones, this illustrations make anatomy easy to learn and visualize the important structures. Orbicularis Oculi Muscle, because they are stronger than the medial rotators, where they contact the ground. At its proximal end – some joints only allow a to and from gliding movement e. Types of Movement; which develops from the middle layer of embryonic tissue lateral to the developing neural tube. Intratemporal Course of the Facial Nerve, on the anterior medial thigh, the longitudinal arches run down the length of the foot. Referred pain: Conscious perception of visceral sensations map to specific regions of the body, the two sides of this expansion form the medial condyle of the tibia and the lateral condyle of the tibia.