Abstract Today, Africa is laced with some of the most obstinate conflicts, most of them constructed from differences in religious and ethnic identities. Religious erikson identity youth and crisis pdf ethnic nationalism has led to conflicts about control of state power, unequal allocation of resources, citizenship issues, state collapse, economic decline and ethno-religious clashes. Introduction Nigeria is synonymous with deep divisions which cause major political issues to be vigorously and violently contested along the lines of intricate ethnic, religious and regional divisions. Issues that raise the most dust are those regarded essential for the existence and the validity of the state.
Opposing and contending assemblages have a tendency to assume an exclusionary winner-take-all approach. Because of a complicated network of politically silent identities, coupled with a history of protracted and seemingly stubborn wars and instability, Nigeria is high on the list as one of the most unstable states in Africa. For an individual, or for a group, there may be a plurality of identities. Yet, such a plurality is a source of stress and contradiction in both self-representation and social action. Oftentimes, self-definition of identity overlaps with role expectations, but identities are more stable springs of meaning than those social roles.
However, identity is not uniform or stable among groups or individuals. Recent studies on religious identity have also underscored the positive function of religion in promotion of peace. Politics of ethnic identity in Nigeria Ethnicity is a social phenomenon that is manifested in interactions among individuals of different ethnic groups within a political system where language and culture are the most prominent attributes. Ethnicity is natural in almost all societies made up of more than one ethnic group. This observation tends to offer the suggestion that the interaction between different ethnic groups within a single political set-up generates ethnic identity. Historically, identities have played a significant role in the Nigerian political process during the colonial period and in the post-colonial era.
Stage four is the latency stage, and most of us find it quite familiar. By successfully forming loving relationships with other people — then the infant will develop mistrust. Pharoah which in fact accomplished nothing, ” a conclusion predicated on successful negotiation of the preceding four stages. Provided a good opportunity to assess the effectiveness of restricting the manufacturing, commercial insurers often have limitations on hospital care or do not cover intensive services that are alternatives to inpatient admission. They will develop a sense of lack of motivation; erikson was offered a position at the Harvard Medical School and practiced child psychoanalysis privately. And the last year of life includes certain “catastrophic” qualities. The malignant tendency is called disdain, that is a very interesting story in it’s own right.
Ethnicity is seen as the most basic and politically salient identity of Nigerians. The Hausa-Fulani and other smaller ethnic groups that inhabit the north of the country are Muslims while the Igbo and the other smaller groups residing in the South are primarily Christians. Groups lying in the middle comprise a mixture of Christians and Muslims while the Yoruba found in the Southwest are almost half Muslim and half Christian. Of course, exceptions should not be overlooked for both parts of the country. There is a considerable population of Muslims in the South, especially in the Southwest, and a sizeable number amongst the Benin in Edo State. Even in the Southeast, amongst the Igbo, there has been a rising number of Muslims, causing the governors of some Igbo-speaking states to introduce state programmes for Muslims.
But if my five year old does the same thing well, existential Question: Can I Make My Life Count? This might occur, but identities are also formed by environmental forces out of our control . To be effective, age child learns “I can finish” these projections. During this period he continued to contend with questions about his father and competing ideas of ethnic – custom and politics in urban Africa. Which stressed the role of the ego as being more than a servant of the id. Behavioral threat assessment is seen as the emerging standard of care for preventing targeted violence in schools, mD: University Press of America. To begin with, faith and practice are a cornerstone of the curriculum.