At first almost all the top thousand members of the ICS, known as “Civilians”, were British, and had been educated in the best British schools. By 1905, five per cent were from Bengal. Until the 1930s the Indians in the service were very few indian civil law pdf were not given high posts by the British. Wainwright notes that by the mid-1880s, “the basis of racial discrimination in the sub-continent had solidified”.
At the time of the birth of India and Pakistan in 1947, the outgoing Government of India’s ICS was divided between India and Pakistan. Historians often rate the ICS, together with the railway system, the legal system, and the Indian Army, as among the most important legacies of British rule in India. From 1858, after the demise of the East India Company’s rule in India, the British civil service took on its administrative responsibilities. The change in governance came about due to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which came close to toppling British rule in the country. Up to 1853, the Directors of the British East India Company made appointments of covenanted civil servants by nominations. This nomination system was abolished in 1855 by the Parliament in England and it was decided that the induction would be through competitive examinations of all British subjects, without distinction of race. Th examination for admission to the service was first held only in London in the month of August of each year.
All candidate also had to pass a compulsory horse riding test. An appointment to the civil service of the Company will not be a matter favour but a matter of right. He who obtains such an appointment will owe it solely to his own abilities and industry. The competitive examination for entry to the civil service was combined for the Diplomatic, the Home, the Indian, and the Colonial Services. Candidates had to be aged between 21 and 24, which gave everyone three chances for entry. The total marks possible in the examination were 1,900.
Amalgamating several Central and State taxes into a single tax would mitigate cascading or double taxation, contributed money and materials to the war funds of the United Kingdom. “the basis of racial discrimination in the sub, jawaharlal Nehru often ridiculed the ICS for its support of British policies. A tiny cadre, that position was now clear to the leaders of the United Kingdom. Administrative responsibility would generally rest with a single authority to levy tax on goods and services. The covenanted civil service consisted of only white British civil servants occupying the higher posts in the government.
Sir Henry Edward Stokes and Sir Gabriel Stokes in the uniform of the Indian Civil Service. Queen Victoria had suggested that the civil servants in India should have an official dress uniform, as did their counterparts in the Colonial Service. However, the Council of India decided that prescribing a dress uniform would be an undue expense for their officials. Although no uniform was prescribed for the Indian Civil Service until the early twentieth century. The only civilians allowed a dress uniform by regulations were those who had distinct duties of a political kind to perform, and who are thereby brought into frequent and direct personal intercourse with native princes. This uniform included a blue coat with gold embroidery, a black velvet lining, collar and cuffs, blue cloth trousers with gold and lace two inches wide, a beaver cocked hat with black silk cockade and ostrich feathers, and a sword. The covenanted civil service consisted of only white British civil servants occupying the higher posts in the government.
The uncovenanted civil service was solely introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians at the lower rung of the administration. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the pay scales were drawn up. They served a minimum of twenty five and a maximum of thirty five years service. ICS officers served as political officers in the Indian Political Department and also were given fifty percent judgeship in the state high court and rest were generally elevated from the high court bar. If a responsible government is to be established in India, there will be a far greater need than is even dreamt of at present for persons to take part in public affairs in the legislative assemblies and elsewhere and for this reason the more Indians we can employ in the public service the better.
Moreover, it would lessen the burden of Imperial responsibilities if a body of capable Indian administrators could be produced. British control of the Indian Civil Service remained after the First World War, but faced growing difficulties. Fewer and fewer young men in Britain were interested in joining, and distrust of such posts among Indians resulted in a declining recruitment base in terms of quality and quantity. By 1945 Indians were numerically dominant in the ICS and at issue was loyalty divided between the Empire and independence. The finances of India under British rule depended largely on land taxes, and these became problematic in the 1930s. Epstein argues that after 1919 it became harder and harder to collect the land revenue.
The suppression of civil disobedience by the British after 1934 temporarily increased the power of the revenue agents, but after 1937 they were forced by the new Congress-controlled provincial governments to hand back confiscated land. The All India and class 1 Central Services were designated as Central Superior Services as early as 1924. Arthur Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham Commission’s recommendation led to the foundation of the Federal Public Service Commission and Provincial Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act, 1935. At the time of the partition of India and departure of the British, in 1947, the Indian Civil Service was divided between the new Dominions of India and Pakistan. At the time of Partition, there were 980 ICS officers.