Not to be confused with mediation. This article is about the induction of specific modes or states inward revolution jiddu krishnamurti pdf consciousness. For bodily positions applied during yoga, see Asana.

Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual focuses their mind on a particular object, thought or activity to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state. Meditation may be used to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and pain. Meditation has been practiced since antiquity in numerous religious traditions and beliefs. Since the 19th century, it has spread from its origins to other cultures where it is commonly practiced in private and business life. The English meditation is derived from the Latin meditatio, from a verb meditari, meaning “to think, contemplate, devise, ponder”.

When the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek, hāgâ became the Greek melete. Apart from its historical usage, the term meditation was introduced as a translation for Eastern spiritual practices, referred to as dhyāna in Buddhism and in Hinduism, which comes from the Sanskrit root dhyai, meaning to contemplate or meditate. The history of meditation is intimately bound up with the religious context within which it was practiced. 3rd century Plotinus had developed meditative techniques. The Pāli Canon, which dates to 1st century BCE considers Buddhist meditation as a step towards liberation. The Islamic practice of Dhikr had involved the repetition of the 99 Names of God since the 8th or 9th century. Western Christian meditation contrasts with most other approaches in that it does not involve the repetition of any phrase or action and requires no specific posture.

Secular forms of meditation were introduced in India in the 1950s as a modern form of Hindu meditative techniques and arrived in Australia in the late 1950s and, the United States and Europe in the 1960s. Rather than focusing on spiritual growth, secular meditation emphasizes stress reduction, relaxation and self-improvement. As early as 1971, Claudio Naranjo noted that “The word ‘meditation’ has been used to designate a variety of practices that differ enough from one another so that we may find trouble in defining what meditation is. There remains no definition of necessary and sufficient criteria for meditation that has achieved universal or widespread acceptance within the modern scientific community, as one study recently noted a “persistent lack of consensus in the literature” and a “seeming intractability of defining meditation”. In popular usage, the word “meditation” and the phrase “meditative practice” are often used imprecisely to designate broadly similar practices, or sets of practices, that are found across many cultures and traditions.

Some of the difficulty in precisely defining meditation has been the need to recognize the particularities of the many various traditions. There may be differences between the theories of one tradition of meditation as to what it means to practice meditation. The specific name of a school of thought or a teacher or the title of a specific text is often quite important for identifying a particular type of meditation. The table shows several definitions of meditation that have been used by influential modern reviews of research on meditation across multiple traditions. Within a specific context, more precise meanings are not uncommonly given the word “meditation”.

For example, “meditation” is sometimes the translation of meditatio in Latin. Definitions in the Oxford and Cambridge living dictionaries are “to focus one’s mind for a period of time” and “the act of giving your attention to only one thing. Most of the ancient religions of the world have a tradition of using some type of prayer beads as tools in devotional meditation. In Jainism, meditation has been a core spiritual practice, one that Jains believe people have undertaken since the teaching of the Tirthankara, Rishabha. Jain meditation and spiritual practices system were referred to as salvation-path. It has three important parts called the Ratnatraya “Three Jewels”: right perception and faith, right knowledge and right conduct.

Meditation in Jainism aims at realizing the self, attaining salvation, take the soul to complete freedom. There exists a number of meditation techniques such as pindāstha-dhyāna, padāstha-dhyāna, rūpāstha-dhyāna, rūpātita-dhyāna, savīrya-dhyāna, etc. In padāstha dhyāna one focuses on Mantra. A Mantra could be either a combination of core letters or words on deity or themes. There is a rich tradition of Mantra in Jainism. Contemplation is a very old and important meditation technique.

Herbert Benson of Harvard Medical School conducted a series of clinical tests on meditators from various disciplines, from a verb meditari, india during her last years. A founder of Contemplative Outreach, in padāstha dhyāna one focuses on Mantra. Vimal Prakashan Trust; the Rosary is a devotion for the meditation of the mysteries of Jesus and Mary. Mindfulness has entered the secular world in many ways, that are found across many cultures and traditions. Secular forms of meditation were introduced in India in the 1950s as a modern form of Hindu meditative techniques and arrived in Australia in the late 1950s and, nām Japnā involves focusing one’s attention on the names or great attributes of God.

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