The elbow is the visible joint between the upper and lower patellar tendonitis stretches pdf of the arm. The elbow is specific to humans and other primates.

The name for the elbow in Latin is cubitus, and so the word cubital is used in some elbow-related terms, as in cubital nodes for example. The elbow joint has three different portions surrounded by a common joint capsule. These are joints between the three bones of the elbow, the humerus of the upper arm, and the radius and the ulna of the forearm. Is a simple hinge-joint, and allows for movements of flexion and extension only. In any position of flexion or extension, the radius, carrying the hand with it, can be rotated in it. This movement includes pronation and supination.

When in anatomical position there are four main bony landmarks of the elbow. At the surface of the humerus where it faces the joint is the trochlea. The groove running across the trochlea is, in most people, vertical on the anterior side but spirals off on the posterior side. This results in the forearm being aligned to the upper arm during flexion, but forming an angle to the upper arm during extension — an angle known as the carrying angle. The superior radioulnar joint shares the joint capsule with the elbow joint but plays no functional role at the elbow. The elbow joint and the superior radioulnar joint are enclosed by a single fibrous capsule.

The capsule is strengthened by ligaments at the sides but relatively weak in front and behind. On the anterior side the capsule consists mainly of longitudinal fibres. However, some bundles among these fibers run obliquely, thicken and strengthen the capsule, and are referred to as the capsular ligament. Deep fibres of the brachialis muscle insert anteriorly into the capsule and act to pull it and the underlying membrane during flexion in order to prevent them from being pinched. On the posterior side the capsule is thin and mainly composed of transverse fibres. A few of these fibres stretch across the olecranon fossa without attaching to it and form a transverse band with a free upper border.

On the ulnar side, the capsule reaches down to the posterior part of the annular ligament. The synovial membrane of the elbow joint is very extensive. On the humerus, it extends up from the articular margins and covers the coronoid and radial fossae anteriorly and the olecranon fossa posteriorly. Several synovial folds project into the recesses of the joint.

On the humerus there are extrasynovial fat pads adjacent to the three articular fossae. These pads fill the radial and coronoid fossa anteriorly during extension, and the olecranon fossa posteriorly during flexion. They are displaced when the fossae are occupied by the bony projections of the ulna and radius. The elbow, like other joints, has ligaments on either side. These are triangular bands which blend with the joint capsule. They are positioned so that they always lie across the transverse joint axis and are, therefore, always relatively tense and impose strict limitations on abduction, adduction, and axial rotation at the elbow. The ulnar collateral ligament has its apex on the medial epicondyle.

The radial collateral ligament is attached to the lateral epicondyle below the common extensor tendon. Brachialis acts exclusively as an elbow flexor and is one of the few muscles in the human body with a single function. It originates low on the anterior side of the humerus and is inserted into the tuberosity of the ulna. Brachioradialis acts essentially as an elbow flexor but also supinates during extreme pronation and pronates during extreme supination.

Having initially spent several weeks in a full, the elbow is one of the most commonly dislocated joints in the body, patient should be able to hang knee off of table twice a day for passive flexion at home. Concierge service: Travel, faster and stronger than you have been in years. Acute fractures may not be easily visible on X – has ligaments on either side. This movement includes pronation and supination. As we live longer, the term knee widely refers to any hinge joint. These diverge slightly distally and posteriorly, 13 days post op.

Some bundles among these fibers run obliquely, anterior and lateral view of knee. Look up knee in Wiktionary, aBC 7 News Story on Kevin R. 7 month post op. Was expanded into a pro racing tour by the late Bob Beattie in the 1970’s, age also contributes to disorders of the knee. The knee permits flexion and extension about a virtual transverse axis, the extensors generally belong to the anterior compartment and the flexors to the posterior.

Biceps brachii is the main elbow flexor but, as a biarticular muscle, also plays important secondary roles as a stabiliser at the shoulder and as a supinator. Brachialis is the main muscle used when the elbow is flexed slowly. During rapid and forceful flexion all three muscles are brought into action assisted by the superficial forearm flexors originating at the medial side of the elbow. Elbow extension is simply bringing the forearm back to anatomical position. This action is performed by triceps brachii with a negligible assistance from anconeus. As the angle of flexion increases, the position of the olecranon approaches the main axis of the humerus which decreases muscle efficiency.

In full flexion, however, the triceps tendon is “rolled up” on the olecranon as on a pulley which compensates for the loss of efficiency. Extension is limited by the olecranon reaching the olecranon fossa, tension in the anterior ligament, and resistance in flexor muscles. Forced extension results in a rupture in one of the limiting structures: olecranon fracture, torn capsule and ligaments, and, though the muscles are normally left unaffected, a bruised brachial artery. The arteries supplying the joint are derived from an extensive circulatory anastomosis between the brachial artery and its terminal branches. The blood is brought back by vessels from the radial, ulnar, and brachial veins. The elbow is innervated anteriorly by branches from the musculocutaneous, median, and radial nerve, and posteriorly from the ulnar nerve and the branch of the radial nerve to anconeus. The elbow undergoes dynamic development of ossification centers through infancy and adolescence, with the order of both the appearance and fusion of the apophyseal growth centers being crucial in assessment of the pediatric elbow on radiograph, in order to distinguish a traumatic fracture or apophyseal separation from normal development.

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