Initially amorphous cubes gradually transform into ordered 3D meshes of crystalline nanowires as summarized in the model below. Self-organization occurs in many physical, chemical, biological, robotic, and self management for actors pdf systems.

The cybernetician William Ross Ashby formulated the original principle of self-organization in 1947. The cybernetician Heinz von Foerster formulated the principle of “order from noise” in 1960. The idea that the dynamics of a system can lead to an increase in its organization has a long history. The philosopher René Descartes presents it hypothetically in the fifth part of his 1637 Discourse on Method. He elaborated on the idea in his unpublished work The World. The term “self-organizing” was used by Immanuel Kant in his 1790 Critique of Judgment, where he argued that teleology is a meaningful concept only if there exists such an entity whose parts or “organs” are simultaneously ends and means.

Sadi Carnot and Rudolf Clausius discovered the second law of thermodynamics in the 19th century. 18th century thinkers had sought to understand the “universal laws of form” to explain the observed forms of living organisms. This idea became associated with Lamarckism and fell into disrepute until the early 20th century, when D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson attempted to revive it. The term “self-organizing” was introduced to contemporary science in 1947 by the psychiatrist and engineer W. Self-organization was associated with general systems theory in the 1960s, but did not become commonplace in the scientific literature until physicists Hermann Haken et al. The DNA structure shown schematically at left self-assembles into the structure at right. Norbert Wiener regarded the automatic serial identification of a black box and its subsequent reproduction as self-organization in cybernetics.

In the 1970s Stafford Beer considered self-organization necessary for autonomy in persisting and living systems. Using Variety analyses he applied his neurophysiologically derived recursive Viable System Model to management. The self-organizing behaviour of social animals and the self-organization of simple mathematical structures both suggest that self-organization should be expected in human society. Tell-tale signs of self-organization are usually statistical properties shared with self-organizing physical systems.

For Luhmann the elements of a social system are self-producing communications, i. In economics, a market economy is sometimes said to be self-organizing. Paul Krugman has written on the role that market self-organization plays in the business cycle in his book “The Self Organizing Economy”. Enabling others to “learn how to learn” is often taken to mean instructing them how to submit to being taught. The self-organizing behavior of drivers in traffic flow determines almost all the spatiotemporal behavior of traffic, such as traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck, highway capacity, and the emergence of moving traffic jams. Order appears spontaneously in the evolution of language as individual and population behaviour interacts with biological evolution. Blumenfeld, when he wrote: “The meaningful macroscopic ordering of biological structure does not arise due to the increase of certain parameters or a system above their critical values.

In short, they maintain that time irreversibility is not derived from a time-independent microworld, but is itself fundamental. The virtue of their idea is that it resolves what they perceive as a “clash of doctrines” about the nature of time in physics. Since nature works for a determinate end under the direction of a higher agent, whatever is done by nature must needs be traced back to God, as to its first cause. For related history, see Aram Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes. Thermodynamic Theory of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations, Wiley-Interscience, London. International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems. Self-organization and Emergence in Life Sciences.

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