Some of these terms, signaled by an icon of the Vermeer’s monogram and signature, are also discussed as they relate to specifically Vermeer’s art. The terms in this glossary are cross-linked or externally linked only the first time they appear tonal harmony answer key pdf each individual entry. Under raking light, tool marks, paint handling, canvas weave, surface imperfections and restorations can be visualized better than with light coming from different angles. The term raking light may also be used to describe a strongly angled light represented in illusionist painting, although not strictly between 5º and 30º.
Raking light gives volume to objects and accentuates texture. It is best used to create dramatic and moody images. Painters instinctively avoid the lowest angles of raking light because they divided solid objects into to two essentially equal parts: a face would be half in light and half in shadow, which tends to have a flattening effect. Rapen Rapen, which means “stealing” or “borrowing,” is a Dutch term widely used in the seventeenth century when discussing artistic competition and emulation. Rapen was approved by art Dutch theorists of borrowings provided that they were integrated into ones painting and might appear unrecognizable. Ras schilderen Ras schilderen is the Dutch term for alla prima painting. Realism A type of representational art in which the artist depicts as closely as possible what the eye sees.
France which objected to the idealized style of Romanticism by creating works that depicted a more faithful view of everyday life. Many mid-seventeenth century Dutch genre paintings, including those of Vermeer, depicted elegant interiors of the upper middle-class. These pictures reflect concepts that were important in Dutch culture such as the family, privacy and intimacy. Willemijn Fock, a historian of the decorative arts, has demonstrated that floors paved with marble tiles, one of the most ubiquitous features of Dutch interior paintings, were extremely rare in the Dutch seventeenth-century houses.
Vermeer should not be considered a realist painter in the strictest sense of the word. He frequently modified the scale, the shape of objects and even the fall of shadows for compositional or thematic reasons. His scenes, moreover, appear highly staged. The relining, or lining as it is also called, of a painting is a process of restoration used to strengthen, flatten or consolidate oil or tempera paintings on canvas by attaching a new canvas to the back of the existing one. In cases of extreme decay, the original canvas may be completely removed and replaced. The picture was removed from the stretcher and laid on a flat surface.
The edges of the canvas were trimmed, leaving the original support smaller than the new lining. Fielding also describes the process for the complete removal and replacement of the canvas. The use of hand-ironing is liable to produce a flattening of impasto. Wax-based adhesives seem to have been in use for lining from the eighteenth century, although the earliest well-documented case of their employment is in the lining of Rembrandt’s Night Watch in 1851. Although, initially, pure beeswax was used, mixtures incorporating resins such as dammar and mastic, or balsams such as Venice turpentine, were soon found preferable.
Although experiments with synthetic fabrics were carried out during the 1960s and 1970s, traditional linen cloths are still usually used for lining. However polyester canvas is often used for strip-lining, where only the edges of the painting are backed, and for loose-lining, in which no adhesive is used. This latter technique helps protect the painting from atmospheric pollution, but does not flatten or consolidate the paint surface. All of Vermeer’s canvases, except for The Guitar Player, have been relined, and one, The Lacemaker, mounted on panel. Not only has the The Guitar Player never been relined, it is still mounted on its original wood stretcher with wooden pegs, making it an extraordinary rarity among paintings of the age. Renaissance A French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere. For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the fourteenth century to the second or third generation of the sixteenth century.
The period of the Renaissance brought with it many important changes in the social and cultural position of the artist. Over the course of the period there is a steady rise in the status of the painter, sculptor, and architect and a growing sympathy expressed for the visual arts. Painters and sculptors made a concerted effort to extricate themselves from their medieval heritage and to distinguish themselves from mere craftsmen. Although the influence of the Italian Renaissance was felt throughout Europe and in the Netherlands as well, it is interesting to note that none of the great masters of Dutch painting felt the necessity to go to Italy to adsorb its lessons first hand.
Render Rendering in visual art and technical drawing means the process of formulating, adding color, shading and texturing of an image. It can also be used to describe the quality of execution of that process. When used as a means of expression, it is synonymous with illustrating. The alternative method to rendering an image is capturing an image such as photography or image scanning. Both rendered and captured images can be mixed, edited, or both. Repoussoir From the French verb meaning to “push back.
Vermeer adapted various examples of repoussoir to his own compositions that he had derived from other Dutch paintings. The most spectacular example of repoussoir in Vermeer’s oeuvre may be found in The Art of Painting. The large foreground curtain on the left-hand side of the painting seems to have been just drawn back to let the viewer enter the pictorial space. This kind of repoussoir was generally placed on the left-hand side of the composition because we tend to rapidly scan images darting from the left to the right as when reading. A reserve is a temporarily unfinished or blank area of a painting which is surrounded by painted areas that re either partially or fully completed.